## Installation¶

### During setup, python is unable to compile the C extensions.¶

This can occur when no compiler is available for python. If you’re installing on Windows, you can find free compilers for python here.

I installed PyRadiomics successfully from the repository, but when I run the notebook, I get Error loading C extensions, switching to python calculation

When PyRadiomics is installed, the C extensions are compiled and copied to the installation folder, by default the site-packages folder. However, when the notebook is run form the repository, it is possible that PyRadiomics uses the source code directly (i.e. runs in development mode). You can check this by checking the radiomics.__path__ field, which will be something like ['radiomics'] when it is running in development mode and ['path/to/python/Lib/site-packages'] when running from the installed folder. If running in development mode, the C extensions are not available by default. To make them available in development mode, run python setup.py develop from the commandline, which is similar to the install command, but installs pyradiomics to the source folder instead (i.e. does nothing to the python files, but compiles the C extensions and copies them to the source folder).

### Which python versions is PyRadiomics compatible with?¶

PyRadiomics is compatible with both python 2 and python 3. The automated testing uses python versions 2.7, 3.4 and 3.5 (only 64 bits architecture). Python < 2.6 is not supported. Other python versions may be compatible with PyRadiomics, but this is not actively tested and therefore not guaranteed to work.

## Input / Customization¶

### I want to customize my extraction. How do I do that?¶

See also Customizing the Extraction. PyRadiomics can be customized in various ways, but it’s most easy to do this by providing a parameter file. In this yaml structured text file you can define your custom settings and which features and input image types to enable.

### Why is there no parameter to specify a fixed bin count?¶

PyRadiomics does not have the option for setting a fixed bin count, as a fixed bin count makes the values less comparable, instead of more. This is because a fixed bin count means that the “meaning” of difference between gray values is dependent on the range of gray values in the ROI. Take for example 2 images with 2 ROIs, with the range of gray values in the first being {0-100} and in the second {0-10}. If you use a fixed bin count, the “meaning” of 1 gray value difference is different (in the first it means 10 gray values different, in the second just 1). This means you are looking at texture based on very different contrasts. Therefore, PyRadiomics uses a fixed bin width (parameter binWidth), which ensures texture feature values are calculated using the same “contrast” between gray values [1]. There are currently no specific guidelines as to what constitutes an optimal bin width. We try to choose a bin width in such a way, that the resulting amount of bins is somewhere between 30 and 130 bins. This allows for differing ranges of intensity in ROIs, while still keeping the texture features informative (and comparable inter lesion!).

When I try to load my own parameter file, I get error:”CoreError: Unable to load any data from source yaml file”

This error is thrown by PyKwalify when it is unable to read the parameter file. The most common cause is when the file is indented using tabs, which throws a “token (‘t’) not recognized error”. Instead, ensure that all indentations are made using 2 or 4 spaces.

### What file types are supported by PyRadiomics for input image and mask?¶

PyRadiomics uses SimpleITK for image loading and handling. Therefore, all image types supported by SimpleITK can be used as input for PyRadiomics. Please note that only one file location can be provided for image/mask. If you want to provide the image in DICOM format, load the DICOM images using SimpleITK functionality and pass the resultant image object instead.

### Geometry mismatch between image and mask¶

My mask was generated using a another image than my input image, can I still extract features?

For various reasons, both image and mask must have the same geometry (i.e. same spacing, size, direction and origin) when passed the feature classes. To this end PyRadiomics includes checks in the pipeline to ensure this is the case. For more information on the mask checks, see checkMask(). If the geometry error is small difference in origin, spacing or direction, you can increase the tolerance by setting geometryTolerance. If the error is large, or the dimensions do not match, you could also resample the mask to image space. An example of this is provided in bin\resampleMask.py and can be enabled in PyRadiomics by setting correctMask to True, which will only perform this correction in case of a geometery mismatch where the mask contains a valid ROI (i.e. the mask contains the label value which does not include areas outside image physical bounds).

### What modalities does PyRadiomics support?¶

PyRadiomics is not developed for one specific modality. Multiple modalities can be processed by PyRadiomics, although the optimal settings may differ between modalities. There are some constraints on the input however:

1. Gray scale volume: PyRadiomics currently does not provide extraction from color images or images with complex values
2. 3D or slice: Although PyRadiomics supports single slice (2D) feature extraction, the input is still required to have 3 dimensions (where in case of 2D, a dimension may be of size 1).

### Can I use DICOM-RT struct for the input mask?¶

PyRadiomics does not support DICOM-RT struct as input directly. We recommend to convert these using for example SlicerRT. We are working on providing support for DICOM-RT in the Slicer extension, but this is not thoroughly tested yet.

## Usage¶

### How should the input file for pyradiomicsbatch be structured?¶

Currently, the input file for pyradiomicsbatch is a csv file specifying the combinations of images and masks for which to extract features. It must contain a header line, where at least header “Image” and “Mask” should be specified (capital sensitive). These identify the columns that contain the file location of the image and the mask, respectively. Each subsequent line represents one combination of an image and a mask. Additional columns are also allowed, these are copied to the output in the same order as the input, with the additional columns of the calculated features appended at the end. N.B. All header names should be unique and not match any of the produced header names by pyradiomics.

I installed PyRadiomics, but when I run the jupyter notebook, I get ImportError: No module named radiomics

This can have two possible causes: 1) When installing PyRadiomics from the repository, your python path variable will be updated to enable python to find the package. However, this value is only updated in commandline windows when they are restarted. If your jupyter notebook was running during installation, you first need to restart it. 2) Multiple versions of python can be installed on your machine simultaneously. Ensure PyRadiomics is installed on the same version you are using in your Jupyter notebook.

### I’m missing features from my output. How can I see what went wrong?¶

If calculation of features or application of filters fails, a warning is logged. If you want to know exactly what happens inside the toolbox, PyRadiomics provides extensive debug logging. You can enable this to be printed to the out, or stored in a separate log file. The output is regulated by radiomics.setVerbosity() and the PyRadiomics logger can be accessed via radiomics.logger. See also here and the examples included in the repository on how to set up logging.

### I’m able to extract features, but many are NaN, 0 or 1. What happend?¶

It is possible that the segmentation was too small to extract a valid texture. Check the value of VoxelNum, which is part of the additional information in the output. This is the number of voxels in the ROI after pre processing and therefore the number of voxels that are used for feature calculation.

Another problem can be that you have to many or too few gray values after discretization. You can check this by comparing the range of gray values in the ROI (a First Order feature) with the value for your binWidth parameter. More bins capture smaller differences in gray values, but too many bins (compared to number of voxels) will yield low probabilities in the texture matrices, resulting in non-informative features. There is no definitive answer for the ideal number of discretized gray values, and this may differ between modalities. One study [2] assessed the number of bins in PET and found that in the range of 16 - 128 bins, texture features did not differ significantly.

### Does PyRadiomics support voxel-wise feature extraction?¶

No, currently PyRadiomics only supports lesion-based feature extraction. However, voxel-based feature extraction may be a good addition in the future. If you have thoughts or ideas on how to implement this, we’d welcome your input on the pyradiomics email list.

## Miscellaneous¶

### A new version of PyRadiomics is available! Where can I find out what changed?¶

When a new version is released, a changelog is included in the release statement. Between releases, changes are not explicitly documented, but all significant changes are implemented using pull requests. Check the merged pull request for the latest changes.

### I have some ideas for PyRadiomics. How can I contribute?¶

We welcome suggestions and contributions to PyRadiomics. Check our guidelines to see how you can contribute to PyRadiomics. Signatures and code styles used in PyRadiomics are documented in the Developers section.

### I found a bug! Where do I report it?¶

We strive to keep PyRadiomics as bug free as possible by thoroughly testing new additions before including them in the stable version. However, nothing is perfect, and some bugs may therefore exist. Report yours by opening an issue on the GitHub or contact us at the pyradiomics email list. If you want to help in fixing it, we’d welcome you to open up a pull request with your suggested fix.

### My question is not listed here…¶

If you have a question that is not listed here, check the pyradiomics email list or the issues on GitHub. Feel free to post a new question or issue and we’ll try to get back to you ASAP.

 [1] Leijenaar RTH, Nalbantov G, Carvalho S, van Elmpt WJC, Troost EGC, Boellaard R, et al. ; The effect of SUV discretization in quantitative FDG-PET Radiomics: the need for standardized methodology in tumor texture analysis; Sci Rep. 2015;5(August):11075
 [2] Tixier F, Cheze-Le Rest C, Hatt M, Albarghach NM, Pradier O, Metges J-P, et al. Intratumor Heterogeneity Characterized by Textural Features on Baseline 18F-FDG PET Images Predicts Response to Concomitant Radiochemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:369–78.